Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention

 

“Persistence of Crime Hot Spots: An Ordered Probit Analysis.” 

He Li, Paez Antonio, and Liu DeSheng. (June 20, 2017) Geographic Analysis.  Accessed June 27, 2017 

Study Abstract: The temporal persistence of crime hot spots is recognized as a valuable indicator of consistent problem areas. The current literature has not adequately addressed the mechanisms that perpetuate or interrupt persistent crime hot spots. Investigating the persistence of violent crime hot spots in Columbus, Ohio, from 1994 to 2002, this study fills a gap in the literature by identifying neighborhood structural correlates that drive the persistence of hot spots. Specifically, this study identifies yearly crime hot spots, and estimates an ordered probit model to explore the neighborhood structural determinants. The results indicate that socio-economic factors, identified from a synthesis of social disorganization theory and routine activity theory, significantly correlate with persistent patterns of violent crime hot spots. This gives evidence that a combination of the two ruling spatial theories of crime provides an applicable framework for understanding the temporal dimension of violent crime hot spots. By identifying the factors that contribute to the persistence of hot spots of crime, insights gained from the results can help to inform focused crime prevention efforts.

“Community-Based Violence Prevention Study of the Safe and Successful Youth Initiative: An Intervention to Prevent Urban Gun Violence.” 

Campie, P., Petrosino, A., Fronius, T. & Read, N. (May 2017) American Institutes for Research. Washington, D.C. Accessed June 27, 2017 

Introduction from Study: While the federal government has been steadily increasing support for funding violence prevention activities in urban centers and among older youth involved with guns and gangs, very few states have made this type of violence the focus of their crime prevention efforts. In 2010, Massachusetts invested in the Massachusetts Safe and Successful Youth Initiative (SSYI), an initiative launched in eleven cities with the highest per capita rates of violent crime. SSYI aims to reduce violence and promote healthy development and outcomes among young males, ages 14-24 who are at the greatest risk for violent offending and victimization. This report presents results from the Community-based Violence Prevention (CBVP) study of SSYI’s impact on violent crime in Massachusetts. The overarching research question we examine is to what extent SSYI influenced changes in violent crime in SSYI communities and whether this influence is sustained over time. We also examine hypothesized factors related to SSYI effectiveness and resultant changes in violent crime. To explore our research questions we conducted: (1) analyses of changes in violent crime outcomes in SSYI communities in comparison with 30 other communities in Massachusetts; (2) examinations of community norms of violence and its relationship to police-community relations within each SSYI community; and, (3) investigations of the relationship between the myriad violence prevention and intervention efforts (including SSYI) and violent crime trends in Boston from 2007 to 2014.

 

“From urban to suburban criminology: Understanding crime in America’s “safe” cities” 

Rocque Michael and Posick, Chad. (April 13, 2017). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Accessed June 27, 2017 

Paper Abstract:  Simon Singer’s America’s Safest City represents a new and innovative contribution to the criminological literature. It not only provides a fresh look at understanding crime in America, it sheds the light on a heretofore understudied part of the country, but one that is increasingly populated: Suburbia. Singer offers a new theoretical perspective which he calls “relational modernity.” Because the perspective is so new, it is important to critically appraise and evaluate its merits. Thus, this special issue offers an overview and analysis of the book from four luminaries in criminology.

 

"Broken Windows Policing to Reduce Crime: A Systematic Review.”

Anthony A. Braga and Brandon C. Welsh. The Campbell Collaboration. July 2016.


Abstract/Objective for Review: This review will synthesize the existing published and non-published empirical evidence on the effects of broken windows policing interventions and will provide a systematic assessment of the crime reduction value of broken windows policing in neighborhoods. It is anticipated that this review will help inform policy makers and police department decision makers regarding the continued use of broken windows policing interventions to reduce crime in neighborhoods. Many police agencies in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and other nations currently use broken windows policing as a core crime control strategy and a critical examination of the existing evidence is warranted.

"Satisfaction With Police in Violent Crime Hot Spots: Using Community Surveys as a Guide for Selecting Hot Spots Policing Tactics.”

Corey P. Haberman et al. Crime and Delinquency 1-33. 2015. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0011128713516840.


Abstract: This article argues that citizens’ perceptions of police can aid in selecting appropriate hot spots policing tactics and models satisfaction with police as evidenced by respondents who live or work in violent crime hot spots. Survey data (N = 630) were collected by randomly sampling addresses within violent crime hot spots in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The results reveal that being younger, or more educated, or perceiving higher procedural injustice, or higher social disorder, or being more fearful of crime, all link to lower satisfaction with police in violent crime hot spots. To maintain or improve public satisfaction with police services in hot spots, police departments should adopt tactics that are not only effective in reducing crime but also procedurally just, reduce fear of crime, and address social disorder problems.

"Training and Technical Assistance Provider Directory, Spring 2016-BJA/NTAAC.”

Accessed August 23, 2016.


Abstract: The BJA TTA Provider Directory is an easy-to-use, downloadable guide that contains a comprehensive list of active BJA TTA provider organizations. The BJA TTA Provider Directory is designed to be a quick reference guide that enables BJA staff, BJA TTA providers, and criminal justice practitioners to quickly access key information about BJA providers and give them an understanding of the breadth of justice expertise available. The provider information includes a description of the organization and its criminal justice program areas and current BJA-funded projects. The information in each provider description was extracted from profiles on the BJA TTA Collaboration Portal.

“Robust Criminal Justice System Data Sharing: A Toolkit for 12 Smart Practices for Prosecutors.” 

Hood, Robert. “Robust Criminal Justice System Data Sharing: A Toolkit for 12 Smart Practices for Prosecutors.” Prosecutor’s Report VII. Association of Prosecuting Attorneys. (2014). Accessed August 23, 2016. 


Abstract: This publication offers 12 suggestions for prosecutors and other criminal justice partners to effectively share essential criminal justice data.

“A comparison between the cost effectiveness of CCTV and improved street lighting as a means of crime reduction.” 

Tony Lawson, Robert Rogerson, and Malcolm Barnacle. 
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Volume 68, March 2018, Pages 17-25. Accessed March 8, 201


Abstract: The effectiveness of CCTV and improved street lighting has been studied extensively in terms of their potential for reducing the number of crimes in a certain area. However, this does not take into account the cost of the interventions or the savings due to crime reduction. This paper presents a model, which takes the form of a cellular automaton to simulate the implementation of improved street lighting and CCTV cameras using a range of strategies. This permits an exploration of simulated options to find which is most cost effective and what the best strategy for implementation is. The results indicate that there are few situations where CCTV is more cost effective than improved street lighting as a way of reducing street crime. In addition, it is shown that the strategy of targeting locations with the highest crime rates, “hot spots”, has the greatest potential for maximizing the cost effectiveness of interventions.

“Predictable Policing: Measuring the Crime Control Benefits of Hot Spots Policing at Bus Stops.” 

Ariel, B. & Partridge, H. J Quant Criminology. (2017) 33: 809. Accessed March 8, 2018


Abstract: A fairly robust body of evidence suggests that hot spots policing is an effective crime prevention strategy. In this paper, we present contradictory evidence of a backfiring effect.